8.2 The Greek text

Byzantine kinship

Of which kind is the Greek text in our manuscript? There is almost no information in the literature about the Greek text of Marciana Gr. Z. 11 (379), 460 in the Gregory-Aland list (hereafter 460).

We have a long and detailed description made by Rinck in 1830 (codex 109 [Rinck 1830: 30-40]). It is mostly a comparison between 460 and two Greek manuscripts, codex Cyprius (GA 017) and one other that we were not able to track down (one manuscript owned by Petivius (Denis Pétain) and used by Zacagnius for his Euthalian edition, "Alexandrino Vaticanum 179" ?).

Afterwards, the research seems to show no particular interest on 460. The manuscript is not included in Alands' The Text of the New Testament [Aland 1995]. In the Textwert, the manuscript is not a good support of the "alter Text".1

During the whole duration of the project, we will pay particular attention to the Greek text and its readings.

According to our current analysis of 46 readings from 1 Corinthians and 1 Thessalonians, the Greek text is close to the Byzantine text (42 in 46 readings).

Here the details of the readings (1 = the witness supports the reading; 0 = the witness does not support the reading):

Readings\witnessesGreek 460Latin 460NA28P46P61P65אא1א2אcABB2CC2C3DD1D2FGIKLPΨΨc027863381104104c326326c365629630117512411505150617391739c18811881c2464MajbarReadings\witnesses
1 Cor 1:1Παῦλος κλητὸς ἀπόστολος1110 1   01    0  11  111  1101 1 11111111 1 11111 Cor 1:1
1 Cor 1:1ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ 000  1   10    0  00  111   011   1 111111 1 111 1 Cor 1:1
1 Cor 1:2τῆ οὔση ἐν κορίνθω ἡγιασμένοις ἐν χριστῷ κλητοῖς ἁγίοις1101 1   10    01000  111   111   1 111  1 1 110 1 Cor 1:2
1 Cor 1:2αὐτῶν καὶ ἡμῶν 11  1 0 11    10 11  000   110   0 010010 0 00  1 Cor 1:2
1 Cor 1:4εὐχαριστῶ τῶ θεῷ μου 11   01  10 1  1  11  111   111 1 111111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:4
1 Cor 1:6μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ 100  0   0100  0  11  000   010   0 010000 0 00  1 Cor 1:6
1 Cor 1:8ἕως τέλους110  1   11 1  0  00  111   111   1 111111 1 11  1 Cor 1:8
1 Cor 1:8ἐν τῆ ἡμέρα111  1   11 1  0  00  111   111   1 111111 1 11  1 Cor 1:8
1 Cor 1:8ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ 110  1   10 1  1  11  111   111 1 11111111 1 11  1 Cor 1:8
1 Cor 1:9δι οὗ ἐκλήθητε111  1   11 1  01 00  111   111   1 111111 1 11  1 Cor 1:9
1 Cor 1:10σχίσματα110  1   11 1  1  11  111   101   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:10
1 Cor 1:11ἀδελφοί μου110  1   11 0  1  11  111   110   1 1111 1 1 11001 Cor 1:11
1 Cor 1:13deest μη110  1   11 1  1  11  111   111 0 111111 1 1 01  1 Cor 1:13
1 Cor 1:13ὑπὲρ (ὑμῶν)110  1   10 1  0  11  111   111   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:13
1 Cor 1:14τῷ θεῷ01   0 1 00 1  1  11  111  0001 0 11111110 1 11  1 Cor 1:14
1 Cor 1:15ἐβαπτίσα100  0   00 0 11  11  111  0000   0 001100 1 11  1 Cor 1:15
1 Cor 1:16ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα111  1   11 1  1  00  111   111   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:16
1 Cor 1:17deest ο 10  1   10 1  1  00  111   111   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:17
1 Cor 1:17ἀλλ' εὐαγγελίζεσθαι011  1   10 1  1  11  111   111   0 1111 1 1 11  1 Cor 1:17
1 Thes 1:1ἐν θεῷ πατρὶ11   1   01    1  11 1111 11101 1 1011111111 11101 Thes 1:1
1 Thes 1:1ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ 10   1   10    1  0011110 0 111 1 101111 0 0 11  1 Thes 1:1
1 Thes 1:2μνείαν ὑμῶν10   0 1 00 1  1  1101111 00001   1 1111 0 0 11  1 Thes 1:2
1 Thes 1:4ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ  1   1   10 1  0  00 1011 1 011   0 0101 1 1 00  1 Thes 1:4
1 Thes 1:5τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν11   01  11 0  1  1111111 11111 1 1111111111 11  1 Thes 1:5
1 Thes 1:5εἰς ὑμᾶς11   1   01 10 0  0011101 0 111   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Thes 1:5
1 Thes 1:5ἐν πληροφορία11   0   10 1  1  11 1111 1 011   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Thes 1:5
1 Thes 1:5ἐν ὑμῖν11   0   01 0  1  11 1101 1 000 011 1111 0 0 11  1 Thes 1:5
1 Thes 1:6μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου11   1   10 1  1  11 1111 1 111   1 1111 1 1 11  1 Thes 1:6
1 Thes 1:7ὑμᾶς τύπους πᾶσι00   1   10 1  0 111 1111 1 000   1 1111 0 0 11  1 Thes 1:7
1 Thes 1:8ἐν τῆ ἀχαία 11   1   10 1  1  11 0111 1 011   000110 0 0 11  1 Thes 1:8
1 Thes 1:8ἀλλὰ καὶ 10   0   00 0  0 100 1100 1 001   1 1111 0 0 01  1 Thes 1:8
1 Thes 1:9περὶ ἡμῶν11   1   10 1  1  11 1111 1 101   100111 1 1 11  1 Thes 1:9
1 Thes 1:10ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν 10  1   01 0  1  1110111 1 111   101111 1 0101  1 Thes 1:10
1 Thes 1:10ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς 0   0   00 1  1  11 1101 0 001   1 1 10 0 0 01  1 Thes 1:10
1 Thes 2:3οὔτε 1   0   00 0  0 100 1100 00001 0 101 11 0 0 01  1 Thes 2:3
1 Thes 2:4ἀλλὰ τῶ θεῷ  0   0 1 10 0  0 111 1101 1 111   1 1 11 1 1 11  1 Thes 2:4
1 Thes 2:5ἐν προφάσει11   0 1 10 1  1  11 1111 1 011 0 1 1 11 1 1 01  1 Thes 2:5
1 Thes 2:7νήπιοι11  11  001 10 1 0111000100 0010010 0 00 0 0  0  1 Thes 2:7
1 Thes 2:8ὁμειρόμενοι11   1   11 1  1  11 1111 0 111   100 10 1 0 11  1 Thes 2:8
1 Thes 2:8εὐδοκοῦμεν01   1   11 1  1  11 1111 1 001   1 1 11 1 1 11  1 Thes 2:8
1 Thes 2:8γεγένησθε 0   0   00 0  0  0001001 0 000   0 0 0000 0 01  1 Thes 2:8
1 Thes 2:9νυκτὸς γὰρ00   0   00    0 100 1100 00001 0 0 1 10 0 0 01  1 Thes 2:9
1 Thes 2:12ὑμᾶς11   0   11    1  11 1111 1 111   1 1 11 1 1 11  1 Thes 2:12
1 Thes 2:12καλοῦντος01   0   01    1  11 1111 1 110 0 111 10 1 1 01  1 Thes 2:12
1 Thes 2:13om. καὶ10   0   00    1  11 1100 10101   1 1 11 0 0 11  1 Thes 2:13
1 Thes 2:14ἐστιν ἀληθῶς11   00  10    1  11 1111 1 011   1 1 11 0 0 11  1 Thes 2:14
Total of matching readings 31346112724029200250 3025323252441343901832729380623773732413610292291334231Total
Readings\witnessesGreek 460Latin 460NA28P46P61P65אא1א2אcABB2CC2C3DD1D2FGIKLPΨΨc027863381104104c326326c365629630117512411505150617391739c18811881c2464MajbarReadings\witnesses

The list was created based on the Nestle-Aland 28 and the UBS 3 with checking in the NTVMR. We didn't keep in the list the readings supported by one witness only; it is still noteworthy that all readings are not of comparable importance.

We see that 42 of these 46 readings correspond to the Byzantine text with the highest matching rate. 460 is close to witness L (020), which is a representative of the category V (Byzantine text).

460 is also in this excerpt close to Ψ (044), 1241 or 104, which belong all to the category III ("Manuscripts of distinctive character with an independent text", [Aland 1995: 107]). A larger analysis is required to see if it is reliable. 

Focus on some readings

In brief, a first look seems to indicate that 460 present a Byzantine text, which is likely if we take into account the date and the origin of the manuscript. But what about the four readings (highlighted in blue in the table) that differ from the Byzantine text? Are they important? Do they say anything about the origin of the Greek text in 460?

  • 1 Cor 1:2 αὐτῶν καὶ ἡμῶν (folio 156r)

    A great amount of manuscripts, Byzantine text included, has αὐτῶν τε καὶ ἡμῶν. The conjunctions τέ and καί are often used in composition as synonym and τέ is quite unstable; this reading does not have much weight.

  • 1 Cor 1:6 μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ (folio 156r)

    A great majority of witnesses, Majority text included, have here μαρτύριον τοῦ Χριστοῦ. 460 and a few other witnesses (B* F G 81. 1175 sams) have μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ. 

    This reading is quite intriguing as 460 does not share particular similarities with B, F, G, 81 or 1175.

    The first thought was that 460 was influenced by the Latin column, which presents testimonium dei. However, the presence of testimonium dei in the Latin is also striking. We discuss the mutual influences hereinafter in 9.5.

  • 1 Thes 1:4 ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ (folio 246r)

    In some of the manuscripts the article τοῦ (B D F G L 33. 365. 630. 1241. 2464 𝔐) is used, while in the rest of the cases τοῦ is absent (ὑπὸ θεοῦ) (ℵ A C K P Ψ 0278. 81. 104. 945. 1175. 1505. 1739. 1881). This is not a significant reading.

  • 1 Thes 2:7 νήπιοι (folio 247v)

    This reading is quite important. Important witnesses have νήπιοι (ℵ* B C* D* F G I Ψ* 104*. 326c it vgcl.ww sams bo), while other have ἤπιοι (ℵc A C2 D2 K L P Ψc 0278. 33. 81. 104c. 326*. 365. 630. 1241. 1505. 1739. 1881 𝔐 vgst (sy) samss). This reading was much discussed because of the difficulty to understand νήπιοι in this context [Metzger 1994: 561-2].

    It is interesting to notice that 460 supports νήπιοι against the Majority text but again, the reading is also supported by the Latin column (paruuli),see also 9.5.

Generally, we can see that the Greek text is close to the Majority text but also distinguishes itself through unexpected readings. We do have, however, to be conscious of the potential influences among columns.

In this case, two examples differing from the Majority text, 1 Cor 1:6 and 1 Thes 2:7, are readings that are similar in Latin and may result from a Latin influence. However, in one case, 1 Cor 1:6, the Latin reading is uncommon – was the influence then opposite, from Greek to Latin? We develop this point in 9.5

The Greek text will be examined further.

1 In the “Gesamtübersicht”, 1 Cor and 1 Thes are closer to the “alter Text” than the other books (1 Cor 13%; 1 Thes 20%; for comparison: Rom 7%; 2 Cor 0%; Gal 0%. However, it is difficult to be affirmative with the number of Textstellen. [Aland 1987: 55]